in deutscher Sprache: Samuel Hahnemann
The following section is based on the article "Samuel Hahnemann"" from Wikipedia, read on 19.8.18, and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). In the Wikipedia a list of authors is available on this page. Text adaptations and changes are possible.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (* 10. April 1755 in Meißen; † 2. Juli 1843 in Paris) was a German physician, writer and translator of medical and pharmaceutical works. He is the founder of the medical method of ’’’homeopathy’’’.
- 1 Life
- 2 Honors
- 3 Museums, permanent exhibition, specialist library
- 4 Writings (selection)
- 5 Literature
- 6 Weblinks
- 7 References
The time before the developement of homeopathy
Hahnemann was born as the third child of Christian Gottfried Hahnemann and his second wife Johanna Christiane Spieß in Meissen-Triebischvorstadt. His father was a porcelain painter in the famous Meissen porcelain factory.
Samuel Hahnemann attended the Meissen town school, where the school fees were waived for the impoverished family of the gifted pupil, and subsequently received a scholarship at the Prince's School St. Afra in Meissen, where he went to school from 1770. After graduating from school, he began to study medicine in Leipzig in 1775. During this time he earned his living by teaching languages and translating physiological and medical works into German. In 1777 Hahnemann moved to the University of Vienna for three quarters of a year, where he was taught by the medical professor and medical director of the Hospital of the Merciful Brothers, Joseph Freiherr von Quarin, who was also the personal physician of Maria Theresa, at his bedside and during rounds, until he ran out of money. In October 1777, recommended by Quarin, Baron Samuel von Brukenthal, just appointed by Empress Maria Theresia as her governor in Transylvania, offered him a position as librarian, tutor and personal physician. Hahnemann accompanied him to Hermannstadt and stayed there for almost two years. He apparently saw numerous cases of alternating fever (Malaria) there; there are also indications that he himself fell ill with it (which was important for his Cinchona bark experiment). In 1777 he was accepted into the local Freemason Lodge Zu den drei Seeblättern Hermannstadt (Romanian: Sibiu).  Hahnemann also sorted and collected the extensive collection of Samuel von Brukenthals coins. In addition, he reassigned himself as a tutor to ensure his living. Since there was no university in Sibiu, Hahnemann completed his medical studies at Friedrichs University Erlangen in August 1779 with a doctorate. In the following years he practiced as a doctor, chemist, translator and writer in many northern and central German cities - with varying success. At times he gave up his medical practice completely, "because it cost me more effort than it brought me and usually rewarded me with ingratitude" (letter of August 29, 1791, quoted after Jütte, p. 48), and devoted himself entirely to chemical experiments, translations and publications. At other times he had so many patients that he could hardly keep up with the care: "I almost couldn't have written because in the few weeks I live in Eilenburg I am so blessed with customers that I often can't eat" (letter of September 18, 1801, quoted after Jütte, p. 74). His psychotherapeutic, chemical and literary activities also brought quite variable results, as can be seen below.
Die Gründe für Hahnemanns unstetes Umherziehen dürften vielfältig sein. Anthony Campbell fasst sie so zusammen: „… wurde weitergetrieben durch seinen ruhelosen Geist und die Notwendigkeit, einen Lebensunterhalt zu erwirtschaften“. Es war für einen unbemittelten, freischaffenden Geistesarbeiter wie Hahnemann nicht leicht, sich und bald auch seine schnell wachsende Familie zu ernähren; andererseits gehörte ein ausgeprägter Ehrgeiz, welcher ihn zu diversen Experimenten trieb, zu Hahnemanns Charaktereigenschaften, wie schon Zeitgenossen bemerkten. After all, there were often disputes, especially often with pharmacists, over Hahnemann's "interdisciplinary" work as a chemist or pharmacist and doctor (the Leipzig dispensing dispute, see below, is just one of many examples). An example of the economic problems and the ambition of the writer, translator and chemist, who favoured frequent relocations: " It's impossible to live another winter out here in the village. I can't survive here with literature; I don't have much time for chemical work either; I have to send messengers to get everything out of the city, everything except the dry bread. Now I would have taken an apartment in Leipzig long ago if I wanted to live there myself. Inflation, unhealthy air, heavy rent drove me and my children out of it..."
Hahnemann first settled in Hettstedt, then in Dessau, where he married the pharmacist's daughter Johanna Leopoldine Henriette Küchler (1764-1830) in 1782; the two had a total of eleven children. The next station was Gommern near Magdeburg, in 1785 Hahnemann began to practice in Dresden. In addition to a whole series of translations from English and French (mainly medical books, but also an extensive fiction work), he began to regularly publish scientific articles there, such as "Über die Weinprobe auf Eisen und Blei" (1788), which made it possible to prove the falsification of wine with toxic lead sugar. The '’Hahnemann wine tasting’’ made his name known; it was prescribed by the Prussian government for the wine merchants of the city of Berlin. In Dresden, Hahnemann was occasionally a representative of Stadtphysicus and thus gained an insight into forensic medicine, which was reflected in a paper on arsenic poisoning, among other things.
Beginnings of homeopathy and psychotherapeutic experiments
In 1789 Hahnemann moved with his wife and three children to Lockwitz, later to Leipzig and then to the Leipzig suburb of Stötteritz. There, in 1790, he translated the two-volume [Materia medica|Materia medica]] of the Scot [William_Cullen|William Cullen]], a then very well-known physician, the teacher of John Brown, the founder of popular Brownianism. This translation contains a footnote that can be considered the first trace of homeopathy. Hahnemann criticized Cullen for the well-known effect of the cinchona bark on malaria, "("alternating fever") to their stomach-strengthening properties. And he gave a report of a repeated[self-experiment] with the cinchona bark, which, according to him, "aroused all the symptoms usually associated with swallowing fever" - "but without actual shivers of fever". He formulated, at first very carefully, the assumption that this ability to cause comparable symptoms could be responsible for the healing effect of the cinchona bark in malaria.
In 1791 Hahnemann was accepted into the renowned "Churfürstlich Mayntzische Academie nützlicher Wissenschaften" in Erfurt. In 1793 he was also elected as a member of the Leopoldina Academy of Scholars.
In Gotha, where Hahnemann had moved in 1792, the publisher Rudolph Zacharias Becker, a friend of his, announced the establishment of a "convalescent home for about four insane people from wealthy homes", which was to be headed by a "people-friendly doctor" (namely Hahnemann). Punishment, fixation and other disciplinary measures were to be dispensed with; the therapy consisted essentially in conversations, possibly  also already homeopathic medication. However, there was only one patient who could afford the fee, the Hanover author and official Friedrich Arnold Klockenbring, who apparently suffered from a kind of manic-depressive mood disorder. In the spring of 1793 Hahnemann dismissed Klockenbring as cured, but then had to close his institution due to a lack of further patients. In his article "Striche zur Beschilderung Klockenbring während seinem Trübsinns", published in the "Deutsche Monatsschrift" in 1796, Hahnemann reports on his psychotherapeutic attempt.
Further stations of Hahnemann were Molschleben, Göttingen, Pyrmont (1794), Wolfenbüttel, Braunschweig (1795) and Königslutter (1796-1799). He also published eagerly, especially chemical and pharmaceutical translations and his own writings, e.g. on the production of a soluble mercury oxide and on the discovery of a remedy against children's scab Hepar sulphuris, still traded today as homeopathic remedy Hepar sulfuris calcareum), but also a two-part, widely read "pharmacist's encyclopedia". During this time Hahnemann conducted further experiments with drugs themselves and others. They went into the first essay on the healing principle, which was later to become homeopathic. This essay was published in 1796 in Hufeland's "Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst" under the title "Versuch über ein neues Princip zur Auffindung der Heilkräfte der Arzneysubstanzen, nebenst einige Blicken auf die bisherigen". Here Hahnemann formulated the principle of "healing similar things with similar things" (similia similibus curentur) and tried to support it with a whole series of empirical observations, e.g. with further self-experiments, poison reports, reading fruits and own and foreign healing stories, which are explained by the simile principle.
In 1799 Hahnemann moved to Altona with his family, which now numbered eight children. His attempts to earn the high cost of living there did not get off to a good start: The cure of the mentally ill poet Johann Karl Wezel, which he took over on the model of the earlier bell ring treatment, failed, since he did not get along with the aggressive patient, and his writing "Healing and Prevention of Scarlet Fever" advertised in the "Reichsanzeiger" together with a "powder", which was to protect against infection with scarlet fever, also proved unsuccessful. Due to its precarious economic situation, another relocation to Mölln followed in 1800. During this time, he promoted and sold a self-produced "new alkali salt", which soon proved to be a well-known borax. He admitted his mistake and returned the money he had collected.
The foundation of homeopathy as a curative system
Hahnemann changed the place again, first to Machern, then to Eilenburg (1801-1803) and finally to Schildau. According to Hahnemann's Krankenjournal, this is the first time that treatment according to the homeopathic law of similarity can be proven without any doubt. Hahnemann began to use ever smaller doses, which he explained in an essay "Ueber die Kraft kleiner Gaben der Arzneien überhaupt und der Belladonna insbesondere" in Hufelands "Journal der practischen Arzneykunde". After buying a free house in Pfarrgasse on New Year's Eve 1804, he settled in Torgau for a while the following year. An essay by Hahnemann, also in Hufelands magazine, introduces the term "homeopathic" for the first time: "Pointing the finger at homeopathic use of medicines in previous practice". Above all, however, two writings appeared there which made it clear that he had consistently continued his self- and probably also external experimental practice in recent years: the Latin medicament theory "Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore observatis" (fragments on the secured powers of medicine or also those observed on the healthy body) and the book "Heilkunde der Erfahrung", the first overall presentation of the new healing principle. In 1810 Hahnemann finally published the first edition of his basic work on homeopathy, at that time under the title "Organon der rationellen Heilkunde" (later editions bear the title "Organon der Heilkunst"). This work already contained all the characteristics of homeopathy, but was considerably revised and supplemented in the coming years. It has remained the theoretical work of homeopathy to this day.
The "Organon" immediately had a clearly polarizing effect, partly because of the sharp polemics it contained. Hahnemann now became the head of a new school  Viewed. In 1811 followed the first major work which implemented his programme of testing[medicines] on healthy people, namely the first volume of "Reinen Arzneimittellehre" (which was later to be published in six volumes) with "pure medicinal effects" found out in experiments on healthy people (above all on himself, his family and his students) as well as numerous literary quotations. Such an experimentally founded work can be considered a unique contribution to Pharmacology at the time; nothing comparable had been attempted until then, as Anthony Campbell writes.
The years in Leipzig 1811–1821
In 1811 Hahnemann moved to Leipzig. There he succeeded in 1812 with another scientific work ("De Helleborismo veterum", i.e. about the use of hellebore by the old = ancient authors) to obtain the teaching licence at the university (habilitation). Hahnemann actually became the founder of a curative direction, gathered students around him, was able to continue his drug testing program with new powers (especially his students and his eldest son) and hold lectures on homeopathy - and became involved in extensive academic feuds, since he also had fierce opponents among the medical professors. For example, there was a discussion with Karl Heinrich Dzondi of the University of Halle about the question of whether cold or rather warm water should be used for burns (as an example of the "Contraria" - against the principle of similarity). In 1816 the second volume of his "Reine Arzneimittellehre" was published, in 1819 the second edition of the "Organon der Heilkunst", now with the enlightening motto "aude sapere" ("Dare to know") by Horaz, which had become so famous through Kant's definition of the Enlightenment. Hahnemann also gave lectures on the history of medicine, which, unlike the lectures on homeopathy, were unproblematic.
During his time in Leipzig, Hahnemann also maintained an extensive practice. His best-known patient, along with Friedrich Wieck, the father of Clara Wieck (later Clara Schumann), was Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg, Austrian field marshal general, who was very popular as the winner of Leipzig (even Goethe commented on Schwarzenberg's decision with interest). The seriously ill prince, who had already made use of all sorts of other doctors, finally died in October 1820 despite all his efforts.
This was also the time of the "Leipzig dispensing dispute": Hahnemann, who had chemical and pharmaceutical knowledge, insisted on being allowed to prepare his homeopathic medicines himself, which three Leipzig pharmacists sued him for, since only the pharmacists had the privilege of producing medicines. The dispute ended in 1820 with a compromise: the pharmacists retained their traditional [dispensing law], but Hahnemann was also allowed to prepare medicines himself in emergencies, especially in the countryside. Hahnemann's acceptance into the Freemason lodge “Minerva zu den drei Palmen” in 1817 also dates from the Leipzig period.
The time in Köthen 1821–1835
After this partial defeat he decided to move again and went to Köthen in 1821 personal physician to Duke Friedrich Ferdinand von Anhalt-Köthen, where he was granted the right to produce his own medicines and self-dispensing them after the intervention of the Austrian politician Adam von Müller, an influential promoter of homeopathy. In 1822 he was appointed Court Councillor. In 1829 he celebrated the 50th anniversary of his Erlangen doctorate in Köthen.
The first edition of "Chronic Diseases" was published in Köthen in 1828-1830, which marked a considerable change in the doctrine of homeopathy and met with enthusiasm not only among Hahnemann's followers. While he adhered to the principle of similarity, Hahnemann found that simple homeopathic medication did not help with certain chronic diseases. He divided them into three types: venereal diseases syphilis] and "sykosis" ("genital wart disease") and the deficiency disease "psora", under which he calculated a large number of different disease manifestations and which he associated with skin symptoms of the scrotal blister type. In these cases, the principle of similarity should not be applied primarily to the current symptoms of the disease, but to the "primal evils" that had caused chronic illness and continued to affect patients' lives in the form of"Miasmas", as it were of a permanent nature. The drugs he presented in the five volumes of "Chronic Diseases", which he gradually published and which were experimentally tested on healthy people, should also be able to combat the psoriasis. A further, later even sharper formulated stone of impetus was the new doctrine of the medicine potentization: Hahnemann now announced that the method of dilution with simultaneous mechanical processing (shaking, rubbing) would not only produce drugs with fewer side effects, indeed that this special method would only truly open up its healing powers. Also in this teaching his students did not follow him unconditionally.
At the same time Hahnemann, who had previously dispensed with a theoretical explanation of his principle of similarity and described it as a purely empirical law, began to approach the doctrine of Vitalism, which earned him applause from the famous Hufeland, among others. In the fourth (1829) and especially the fifth edition of the Organon (1833) he gave a prominent place to an immaterial [vitality] of the organism, which had not played a role in the first Organon editions, in the argumentation for the principle of similarity, albeit in the form of a hypothesis: "Since this natural healing law (the principle of similarity) is notarized in all pure attempts and all outlawed experiences of the world, so the fact insists, then little depends on the scientific explanation of how this is going on, and I set little value on trying such things. However, the following view proves to be the most probable, as it is based on a wealth of experience." ("Organon", § 20)
Hahnemann's first wife died in Köthen on 31 March 1830 after 48 years of marriage; four of his daughters now supported him in his extensive practice. His statements on the major cholera epidemics of 1830 and 1831 played a major role in the further advancement of homeopathy: Hahnemann himself never saw a cholera patient, but published four influential texts in Köthen on the nature of cholera and on the treatment of cholera, which aroused great interest, particularly in Vienna, and were applied with quite good success compared to the medicine prevailing at the time. It is particularly remarkable that Hahnemann rightly regarded cholera as an infectious disease transmitted by "the finest animals of the lower order" and recommended at least in the initial phase a kind of antiseptic therapy in the form of a camphor application; the fact that Hahnemann strictly contradicted all weakening measures and above all declared the drinking ban recommended by other doctors to be absurd may have contributed to the relative success of homeopathy in cholera..
The 1830s also saw fierce battles for the purity of the new doctrine, which took shape in particular in the conflicts over the first homeopathic hospital in Leipzig, which was founded in 1833. Hahnemann took a strong stand against any attempt to combine homeopathy with conventional, in particular weakening agents such as bloodletting or laxatives. This was especially directed against the director of this hospital, Moritz Müller, who preferred an eclectic approach. The conflicts with the "semi-homoeopaths" did not break off afterwards.
In late 1834, the 34-year-old French painter Mélanie d'Hervilly Hahnemann in Köthen as a patient. It came to a stormy love story with the now seventy-nine year old doctor, which led to Hahnemann's second marriage. The wedding, which took place without ecclesiastical blessing on 18 January 1835 in his house on Wallstraße in Köthen, caused a huge stir. Together with his 45 years younger wife he soon moved to Paris.
Last years in Paris 1835–1843
Hahnemann spent his last eight years in Paris as a respected and busy doctor. A prominent patient was already in 1837 the violinist Niccolò Paganini, who apparently suffered from priapism, urinary retention and coughing. He discontinued treatment after his approach to Hahnemann's wife was brusquely rejected by her. At the end of 1838 he treated the daughter of Ernest Legouvé, a writer well known in Parisian society, who, abandoned by the doctors, was dying. The painter Amaury Duval was called to the hospital bed to still portray her and advised to call Hahnemann. He succeeded in curing them . Hahnemann's reputation quickly spread in Paris society and led him to other prominent patients, such as the writer Eugène Sue or the mother of Victor Schœlcher. The remaining medical records of the Parisian period have only been partially evaluated and should offer further surprises.
In recent years, Hahnemann has worked on a 6th edition of his Organon, which contained new regulations for drug preparation ('potentization'), especially on the later so-called Q-potencies with particularly large dilution steps of 1:50,000, over which there has been a virulent rumor mill for almost a century. It was not published from the estate until 1921 by Richard Haehl, mainly due to quarrels between Mélanie Hahnemann and various Hahnemann students. A version published after Hahnemann's death of Arthur Lutze is considered inauthentic.
Hahnemann died in Paris on July 2, 1843, presumably from pneumonia. He was first buried in the Montmartre cemetery, later (1898) together with his second wife in the Père Lachaise cemetery. Hahnemann's gravestone bears the inscription '"Non inutilis vixi" at his personal request. After Hahnemann's death, the second Mrs. Hahnemann called herself a"doctor of homeopathy" and was therefore accused in 1847 of practising the art of healing without permission. It came to a law suit.
On August 10, 1851, a memorial to Hahnemann was unveiled in Leipzig during a conference of the Homeopathic Central Association. The inscription reads: "DEM // GRÜNDER DER HOMÖOPATHIE // SAM. HAHNEMANN // GEB. ZU MEISSEN D. 10. APRIL 1755 // GEST. ZU PARIS D. 2. JULI 1843 // VON // SEINEN DANKBAREN SCHÜLERN // UND VEREHRERN" (To the // Founder of homeopathy // SAM. HAHNEMANN // Born in MEISSEN, 10. APRIL 1755 // Deceased PARIS, 2. JULI 1843 // from // his grateful students // and followers).
In 1900, a Hahnemann Monument was erected in Washington, D.C. and inaugurated on June 21. Homeopathy was very widespread in the USA at the time, and US homeopaths had raised over $75,000 for the monument. It bears the inscription Similia similibus curentur, the shortest summary of the homeopathic principle: something similar should be cured with something similar.
In Hahnemann's longest place of work, Köthen, a monument was erected in 1897 which was also dedicated to the founder of the Köthen Homeopathic Clinic Arthur Lutze. (1813-1870). It was made by the sculptor Heinrich Pohlmann. The Hahnemann-Lutze Monument stands opposite the magnificent neo-Gothic building of the Lutze Clinic, which today, like Hahnemann's Köthen residential building and practice rooms, is once again accessible to visitors.
Since 1906, a street in Leipzig's Lindenau district has been called Hahnemannstraße. Streets with this name also exist in Stuttgart, Munich, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Dresden and Erlangen.
Hahnemannsplatz and the Hahnemann-Apotheke are named after him in the centre of Meissen. Because of his merits he was made an honorary citizen of Meissen.
Museums, permanent exhibition, specialist library
The Torgauer Kunst- und Kulturverein "Johann Kentmann" e. V. cultivates Hahnemann's legacy in an informative and authentic exhibition in the Original-Hahnemann-Haus, Pfarrstraße 3, 04860 Torgau, the birthplace of the "Organon". In Köthen there is the Hahnemannhaus in Wallstraße 47 (with commemorative plaque) in his former home as a museum and the European specialist library on homeopathy in Wallstraße 48 and a permanent exhibition on homeopathy in the Historical Museum in the castle.  In Hahnemann's birthplace Meissen the Hahnemannzentrum e. V. is located in the monastery ruin of Heilig Kreuz.
His own writings
Almost the entire handwritten estate of Hahnemann and all first editions are kept at the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Robert Bosch Stiftung in Stuttgart.
- Conspectus adfectuum spasmodicorum aetiologicus et therapeuticus (Dissertation). Erlangen 1779. (Als Nachdruck sowie in deutscher Übersetzung erhältlich: Übersicht über die Krampfzustände nach Ursache und Heilung. Bad Langensalza, Reprint 1779/2007, Verlag Rockstuhl, ISBN 978-3-938997-98-7.)
- Anleitung, alte Schäden und faule Geschwüre gründlich zu heilen. Leipzig 1784, Crusius.
- Ueber die Arsenikvergiftung, ihre Hülfe und gerichtliche Ausmittelung. Leipzig 1786, Crusius.
- Abhandlung über die Vorurteile gegen die Steinkohlenfeuerung. Dresden 1787, Waltherische Hofbuchhaltung.
- Unterricht für Wundärzte über die venerischen Krankheiten, nebst einem neuen Quecksilberpräparate. Leipzig 1787. Crusius. (Volltext bei Google )
- Ueber die Weinprobe auf Eisen und Blei. Leipzig 1788.
- Freund der Gesundheit. Frankfurt 1792.
- Apothekerlexikon. 4 Theile in 2 Bänden, Leipzig 1793–1798. (Online unter zeno.org , 2. Band)
- Striche zur Schilderung Klockenbrings während seines Trübsinns. In: Deutsche Monatsschrift, 1. Jg. (1796), S. 147–159.
- Versuch über ein neues Princip zur Auffindung der Heilkräfte der Arzneisubstanzen, nebst einigen Blicken auf die bisherigen. In: Hufelands Journal der practischen Arzneykunde, Bd. 2 (1796), 3. Stück, S. 391–439 (Volltext bei Google ) sowie 4. Stück, S. 465–561 (Volltext bei Google )
- Heilung und Verhütung des Scharlach-Fiebers. Gotha 1801.
- Ueber die Kraft kleiner Gaben der Arzneien und der Belladonna insbesondere. In: Hufelands Journal der practischen Arzneykunde, Band 13 (1801), 2. Stück, S. 152–159.
- Der Kaffee in seinen Wirkungen. Leipzig 1803.
- Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis. Leipzig 1805, Barthius.
- Heilkunde der Erfahrung. In: Hufelands Journal der practischen Arzneykunde, Band 22 (1805), 3. Stück, S. 5–99 (Volltext bei Google )
- Fingerzeige auf den homöopathischen Gebrauch der Arzneien in der bisherigen Praxis. In: Hufelands Journal der practischen Arzneykunde, Bd. 16 (1807), S. 5–43.
- Ueber den Werth der speculativen Arzneisysteme, besonders im Gegenhalt der mit ihnen gepaarten, gewöhnlichen Praxis. In: Allgemeiner Anzeiger der Deutschen (1808).
- Auszug eines Briefes an einen Arzt von hohem Range über die höchst nöthige Wiedergeburt der Heilkunde. In: Allgemeiner Anzeiger der Deutschen (1808).
- Martin Stahl: Der Briefwechsel zwischen Samuel Hahnemann und Clemens von Bönninghausen. (Medizinische Dissertation, Göttingen 1995), Heidelberg 1997 (= Quellen und Studien zur Homöopathiegeschichte, 3)
- Organon der rationellen Heilkunde. Arnoldische Buchhandlung, Dresden 1810; Digitalisierte Ausgabe der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf
- Spätere, jeweils vermehrte und veränderte Auflagen unter dem Titel: Organon der Heilkunst. 2. Auflage: Dresden 1818. 3. Auflage: Dresden 1824. 4. Auflage: Dresden und Leipzig 1829. 5. Auflage: Dresden und Leipzig 1833 (Volltext bei Google ). 6. Auflage (posthum): Leipzig 1921 (hrsg. von Richard Haehl); (Online unter zeno.org ).
- Reine Arzneimittellehre. Theil 1–6. Leipzig, 1811–1821. Zweite, vermehrte Auflage: Leipzig 1822–1827. (Online unter zeno.org )
- De helleborismo veterum. Leipzig 1812.
- Die chronischen Krankheiten. Ihre eigenthümliche Natur und homöopathische Heilung, Theil 1–5. Erste Auflage: Leipzig 1828–1830. Zweite, veränderte und vermehrte Auflage: Leipzig und Dresden 1835–1839. (Online unter zeno.org )
- Systematische Darstellung der reinen Arzneiwirkungen aller bisher geprüften Mittel. Braunschweig : Vieweg, 1831. Digitalisierte Ausgabe der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf
- Allöopathie. Ein Wort der Warnung an Kranke jeder Art. Leipzig 1831.(Volltext bei Google )
- Heilung der asiatischen Cholera und Schützung vor derselben. Nürnberg 1831.
- Sicherste Ausrottung und Heilung der asiatischen Cholera. Leipzig 1831, Glück.
- Sendschreiben über die Heilung der Cholera und die Sicherung vor Ansteckung am Krankenbette. Berlin 1831, Hirschwald. (Volltext bei Google )
- Zur elektronischen Volltextsuche liegt eine CD-ROM-Ausgabe der Directmedia Publishing GmbH aus dem Jahr 2005 vor. Die Ausgabe mit dem Titel: Die Geburt der Homöopathie – Samuel Hahnemanns Werke enthält die Werke: Versuch über ein neues Prinzip zur Auffindung der Arzneisubstanzen. Jena; Academische Buchhandlung 1796, Heilkunde der Erfahrung, Berlin; Wittich, 1805, Organon der Heilkunst, 5. Aufl., Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1833, Organon der Heilkunst. 6. Aufl., Ulm; Haug 1958, Reine Arzneimittellehre. 6 Bände, 2. u. 3. Aufl., Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1825–1839 und Die chronischen Krankheiten. 5 Bände, 2. Aufl., Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1835–1839 (ISBN 3-89853-016-7).
- William Falconer: Versuch über die mineralischen Wasser, 1777.
- Jean Baptiste van den Sande: Die Kennzeichen der Güte und Verfälschung der Arzneimittel, 1787.
- Joseph Berrington: Geschichte Abälards und der Heloise, Leipzig 1789.
- William Cullen: Abhandlung über die Materia Medika, übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von S.H. 2 Bände. Leipzig 1790.
- D. Monro: Chemisch pharmaceutische Arzneimittellehre. Übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von S.H. 2 Bände. Leipzig 1791.
- Neues Edinburgher Dispensatorium, Leipzig 1797/1798.
Non-fiction and articles in reference books
- Georg Bayr: Hahnemanns Selbstversuch mit der Chinarinde 1790. Die Konzipierung der Homöopathie. Haug, Heidelberg 1989, ISBN 3-8304-0210-4.
- Anthony Campbell: Homeopathy in Perspective. A critical appraisal. 2008, ISBN 978-1-84753-737-9.
- Willibald Gawlik: Samuel Hahnemann – Synchronopse seines Lebens. Geschichte, Kunst, Kultur und Wissenschaft bei Entstehung der Homöopathie 1755–1843. Sonntag Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-87758-110-2.
- Rima Handley: Eine homöopathische Liebesgeschichte. Das Leben von Samuel und Melanie Hahnemann. C. H. Beck, München 2002, ISBN 3-406-45991-9.
- Richard Haehl: Samuel Hahnemann. Sein Leben und Schaffen. 2 Bände, Willmar Schwabe, Leipzig 1922 (Nachdruck: Dreieich 1988).
- Robert Jütte (Hrsg.): Samuel Hahnemann. Die Krankenjournale. Haug, Heidelberg 1992–2005, ISBN 3-7760-1577-2.
- Robert Jütte: Samuel Hahnemann, Begründer der Homöopathie. dtv, München 2005, ISBN 3-423-24447-X.
- Angeline Bauer: Hahnemanns Frau. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 2004.
- Guido Dieckmann: Die Gewölbe des Doktor Hahnemann. Berlin 2002. (Inhaltlich völlig freie Erzählung, die sich nicht an der Biographie orientiert.)
- Digitalisierte Werke Hahnemanns bei der University of Michigan
- Digitalisierte Werke Hahnemanns bei archive.org
- Das Homöopathie-Archiv des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung (dort befindet sich der Nachlass von Samuel und Melanie Hahnemann)
- Robert Jütte: Samuel Hahnemann: Mehr als nur ein Denkmal
- Michael Emmans Dean: Homeopathy and the Progress of Science Wissenschaftshistorischer Aufsatz über die Stellung Hahnemanns zur Medizin seiner Zeit und seinen Bezug zur Aufklärung. (PDF; 288 kB)
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke: Homöopathie. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (Hrsg.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4, S. 611–615.
- Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Hahnemann, Samuel. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (Hrsg.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4, S. 527.
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke: Homöopathie. 2005, S. 611 f.
- Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: Internationales Freimaurerlexikon, überarbeitete und erweiterte Neuauflage der Ausgabe von 1932, München 2003, 951 S., ISBN 3-7766-2161-3
- Jürgen Holtorf: Die Logen der Freimaurer, Nikol Verlags GmbH, Hamburg, ISBN 3-930656-58-2, S. 145
- Cf. Jütte 2005, p. 31+32.
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke: Samuel Hahnemann, in: Wolfgang U. Eckart und Christoph Gradmann: Ärzte Lexikon. Von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (1. Aufl. 1995, 2. Aufl. 2001), 3. Aufl., Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2006, S. 151, ISBN 978-3-540-29584-6 (Print), ISBN 978-3-540-29585-3 (online).
- Vgl. etwa Jütte 2005, S. 39f.
- Letter of Hahnemann by 29. August 1791 from Stötteritz, reprinted in Haehl, S. 25.
- Member entry of Samuel Hahnemann at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina, accessed on April 1, 2017. https://www.leopoldina.org/de/mitglieder/mitgliederverzeichnis/member/3620/
- This at least Hanspeter Seiler suspects in: Die Entwicklung von Samuel Hahnemanns ärztlicher Praxis anhand ausgewählter Krankengeschichten. (The development of Samuel Hahnemann's medical practice based on selected medical histories')'. Heidelberg: Haug, 1988, pp. 29-37.
- Jütte 2005, p. 74.
- Sönke Drewsen: Hahnemanns Streit mit der „bisherigen alten Arzneischule“ als Streit um wissenschaftliche Methoden. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion und Würdigung seines Ansatzes zur Grundlegung der Heilkunde als eines methodenkritischen Ansatzes.“ (Hahnemann's dispute with the "former old school of medicine" as a dispute over scientific methods. Attempt to reconstruct and appreciate his approach to the foundation of medicine as a method-critical approach.) In: Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen 11, 1993, pp. 45-58.
- Campbell 2008, p. 24.
- Cf. Jütte 2005, p. 104.
- Cited from Jütte 2005, p. 180.
- For Hahnemann's cholera treatments, the relative success of homeopathy and the explanation see Jütte 2005, pp. 178-184.
- Stephan Heinrich Nolte: Hahnemann in Paris: Environment and new evidence for the treatment of the child Marie Legouvé (1838-1843) Medicine, Society and History 31 (2013) 181-231
- Stephan Heinrich Nolte: A "collateral healing": The life crisis of the writer Eugène Sue and his treatment by Hahnemann 1838/1839 AHZ 258 (2013) 22-26
- Walther Schönfeld: Women in Occidental medicine. From Classical Antiquity to the End of the 19th Century, Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1947, Chapter "Quacksalberinnen", p. 140+141.
- Eine ganz andere Medizin in mehrfacher Dosis. (Hahnemann-Haus und Ausstellung im Historischen Museum) In: Eckart Roloff und Karin Henke-Wendt: Besuchen Sie Ihren Arzt oder Apotheker. Eine Tour durch Deutschlands Museen für Medizin und Pharmazie. Band 1, Norddeutschland. Verlag S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, S. 225–227, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2